Location: Jaggar Museum, Volcanoes National Park, Big Island, Hawaii
Spatter is erupted from volcanoes while still molten. It consists of dense basalt glass that has relatively few gas bubbles. Spatter cones are constructed when spatter accumulates around a volcanic vent. Numerous cones dot the rift zones of Kilauea volcano.
These large, dense pieces of lava are ejected commonly by older shield volcanoes like Mauna Kea and Haleakala.
When molten lava is ejected into the air, it forms thin, fragile strands of volcanic glass.
Limu O Pele
These are not formed by lava fountains. Limu O Pele are delicate flakes or broken walls of large lava bubbles formed when lava from volcanoes enters the ocean and partially inflates with steam.
Pele’s Tears are solidified droplets of lava that form during an eruption. Tears can be found attached to the end of a strand of Pele’s hair.
Aa Lava Flow
Aa forms when sticky, viscous lava flow breaks up while moving downslope a volcano. The reddish brown color develops through oxidation when the lava cools, and the final appearance is that of a rough, jagged and sharp surface. This sample was obtained in 1972 from erupting lava flow from Kilauea Volcano’s Past Rift.
Pahoehoe Lava Flow
The rope like texture of Pahoehoe lava flow comes from the gases emitted by flowing lava. These gases take the form of small bubbles called vesicles. Pahoehoe is composed chiefly of black basaltic glass and the rock has a smooth and slippery surface. This sample was obtained in 1972 from erupting lava flow from Kilauea Volcano’s East Rift Zone.
This solidified lava foam is created when erupting clots of lava from volcanoes release gases that cause intense frothing.
Similar to pumice, but the frothing is so intense that the bubble walls are broken, producing a delicate, thread-like network of basalt glass.
Frothy fragments of volcanic material ejected into the air during volcanic eruptions.